The ozone

OZONE was discovered by the Dutch scientist VON MARUM in the year 1783, while working with electro-static machines. The same happened to CIUKSHANK in 1801, experimenting with the electrolisis of water. Finally, in 1840 the scientist SCHÖNBEIN managed to detect and classify OZONE, giving it the name we now know it by. This word comes from the Greek, and means "smell".

In the year 1863, the scientist SORET proved and demonstrated that OZONE is composed solely of oxigen: (64,800 cal./3 O2=2 O3).

 

Eminent scientists studied OZONE until M.P. OTTO discovered its density, molecular structure and formation. After these studies he had the idea of artificially producing OZONE by means of a perfect system using electrical discharges (Iike those produced naturally); this gave rise to the OTTO system which is currently applied to ozone generators.

 

 

OZONE is an alotrophic variety of oxigen with a triatomic molecule (O3) which is generated by the activation of the diatomic molecule (O2) of oxygen. This activation may be provoked by the action of an electrical discharge or by the irradiated energy of ultraviolet rays.

OZONE (O3) is a natural component of clean, dry air, just as are nitrogen, oxygen, argon, etc., in a proportion of 0.000002% volume; 190 (x 106) tm. existent in the atmosphere.

Some of the gases which make up the air have a specific role to play, as is the case of OZONE. This gas eliminates comtaminating agents which do not form a part of clean, dry air

 

Apart from the above, there exist a list of golden rules for adequate ENVIRONMENTAL OZONE-USAGE. To the same end, the W.H.0. published a similar list of guidelines conceming the concentration of OZONE in the air: Spanish guidelines follow these recommendations. This gas is beneficial to people and animals alike.

 

Molecular weight........................................48

Condensation temperature..........................-112ºC

Fusion temperatura ...................................-192,5ºC

Critical temperatura ...................................-12,1ºC

Critical pressure.........................................54 atm

Density (liquid at 182'C)...........................1.572 gr/cm3

Weight of liquid gas at OºC and 1 atom 2,144 gr

1,3 times the weight of the air

 

In normal temperaturas, OZONE is found in the gaseous state in an unstable dilution in the air. lt dissolves relatively rapidly and convirts back into oxygen (O2).

The proper applications of OZONE are intemationally recognized as having the following results: as a BACTERICIDE, GERMICIDE, VIRICIDE, FUNGICIDE and DEODOR-ANT: it rapidly destroys streptococcus, estafilococcus, colibacillus, etc., as well as the most virulent diphtherian and tetanus toxins.

 

OZONE is a form of oxygen, made up of three oxygen atoms and represented by the symbol - (O3) as opposed to nonnal atmospheric oxygen which is made up of two atoms and has the symbol O2.

It is naturally produced in the upper layers of the atmosphere through the action of ultra-violet rays on atmospheric oxygen. The so called ozonosphere or ozone layer is thus formed, and acts as a fliter, absorbing and reflecting the sun's ultra-violet rays.

The disinfectant and anti-septic properties of this gas have bcen studied since the end of the last century, and have been used to great effect in the treatment of public water supplies, sewage and indoor atmospheres in general.

Its artificial generation is possible by means of the activation of oxygen in the air by high voltage electrical discharges. This electrical energy breaks up the oxygen molecular structure, which is then recombined forming OZONE.

OZONE's chemical characteristics present it as an unstable gas; it is precisely this instability which gives it its speedy action and capacity to reconvert to normal oxygen.

Its highly oxidizing properties and its capacity to break up double linked molecules and aroma rings through a mechanism known as ozonolysis, make OZONE so useful in such a wide field . In this brochure we should like to comment briefly on some of these applications.

 

 

When OZONE is introduced into the air it produces three basic actions:

MICROBICIDE ACTION:

This is possibly OZONE's most important property and the one which is applicable to most situations.

The concept of what microbes are is, as we all know, very wide. Principally, a microbe is any life form which cannot be seen by the naked eye, requiring the use of a microscope for its observation.

These living beings generally exist on any type of surface, liquid or floating in the air as tiny specks of dust or miniscule droplets of water containing contagious diseases in suspension. They are especially common in closed spaces with large numbers of people, where air renewal is slow.

Controlling the pathogenic micro-organisms, known thus due to their capacity to provoke contagious diseases, has bcen the great preoccupation of men of science ever since they were discovered. Hundreds of methods and chemical substances have been elaborated and used to this end, giving greater or lesser results, and attempting to decrease the number of these pathogenic microbes using disinfectants, hygiene, asepsis and antisepties.

Due to its oxydizing properties, OZONE may be considered to be one of the fastest, most efficient microbicide agents in existence. Its action covers a wide spectrum of uses, including the elimination of:

a) Bacteria (bactericide effect)

b) Virus (viricide effect)

e) Fungi (fungicide effect)

d) Spores (sporicide effect)

 

a) Bactericide effect

This effect has bcen known since the beginning of this century when it was first used in water treatment. Nowadays we make use of the effect in both the treatment of waters of all descriptions, atmospheres and even directly on the human organism with therapeutic ends.

One of the most important advantages of OZONE, in respect to other bactericides, is that this effect is viable even at very low levels of concentration (0,01 p.p.m- or less) and for very short periods of exposure. Even an incredibly small concentration of OZONE (around 0.01 p.p.m.) will produce an observable bacteriostatic reation.

The difference between a bactericide and a bacteriostatic effect is simple: a bactericide agent is one capable of killing bacteria, whereas a baseteriostatic agent does not kill them but impedes their reproduction, and thus prevents the population of bacteria from growing.

Although these effects are technically different, in practice a population of bacteria incapable of reproduction, or with only a limited ability to do so, is condemned to extinction. In actual fact, anti-microbe agents as effective as some antibiotics, base their strengths en bacteriostatic action.

 

b) Viricide effect:

Viruses are tiny particles, nowadays considered to exist en the boundary between living beings and inert material, which are incapable of life or reproduction in any other situation than that of a parasite in host cells which are then destroyed.

Contrary to bacteria, viruses are always harmful, causing illness in every organism they attack. Common illnesses such as influenza, common colas, chickenpox, measles, Gennan measles, smallpox, polio and many others, are caused by viruses.

OZONE acts upon the viruses, oxydizing the proteins in their outer layers, and modifying their three-dimensional structures. When this occurs the virus cannot attach itself to cells, and is therefore bereft of protection and reproduction possibilities , and so dies.

Viricide action can be seen with lower levels of OZONE concentration than necessary for bactericide action. This is due to the fact that the outer layer of the virus is less complex than that of a bacteria.

 

c) Fungicide effect:

Certain types of fungus exist, capable of causing illnesses in human beings. Many others are able to provoke alterations in our food-stuffs, making them uneatable, which is the case of, for example, mould.

Due to this phenomenon, it is of interest to humans to be able to control and eliminate these pathogenic forms, the spores of which are found in great numbers in all kinds of atmospher'e.

OZONE allows us to eliminate them by means of its oxydizing action which provokes irreversable cellular damage.

 

d) Sporicide effect:

 

Some fungi and bacteria are capable, in conditions which make growth impossible, of forming a thick layer around themselves and paralizing their metabolic activity by lying dormant. When conditions for their survival have returned, they revert to their normal form and their metabolism renews its activity.

These resistant forms are known as spores and are typical of such pathogenic bacteria as those causing tetanus, gangrene, botulism and anthrax.

This kind of resistant mechanism is difficult to fight against and treatments-normally efficient in other situations, where there are high temperaturas and multitudes of antimierobes are rendered inefectual.

OZONE in slightly stronger concentrations than those used with other bacteria, is capable of breaking the spores' resistance.

 

DEODORIZING ACTION

 

This is one of the best proved properties, thanks to its great degree of usefulness is all types of public building and in the treatment of certain industrially produced odours.

OZONE possesses the properties necessary to destroy unpleasant odours by directly attacking the cause of the odour, without adding any other smeli. In order to get these results it is vital not to exceed the required OZONE concentration for each premises. If the concentration is too great there will be a strong residue of OZONE in the atmosphere causing a certain amount of smell.

What causes unpleasant odours? In closed spaces, where there are crowds of people, the cause is usually organic material in suspension, and the action of various microorganisms on it. This is typical is the case of odours from people, damp, tobacco, food, etc.

OZONE attacks both of these causes by, on the one hand, oxydizing the organic material, attacking it by ozonolysis, and on the other hand, attacking the mierobes which feed from it.There is a wide range of odours which can be got rid of through the use of OZONE. lt all depends on the nature of the substance causing the odour. According to the nature, it is possible to establish its vulnerability when faced with OZONE action, and thus the dosage required to eliminate it.

The result of correct ozonation is that places which suffered with unpleasant odours, no longer smell of anything at all.

 

OXYGENIZING ACTION:

 

In big cities where great numbers of closed, little-ventilated spaces abound, it is often possible to appreciate a rarified atmosphere due to a lack of oxygen; often referred to as stale air.

Thanks to its great power of oxygenation, OZONE contributes to an improvement in the cells of higher life forms in using available oxygen more efficiently, by stimulating the various enzymes which play a part in this process.

 

It would be risky to list all the possible applications of OZONE, simply because of the great number of applications in existence in medicine, air treatment, food preservation, industry, etc. Below we will attempt to explain a few of these.

 

It acts as a disinfectant for drinking water, as OZONE not only works to deodorize and oxydize dissolved organic substances, but also disinfect. The process of disinfecting water with OZONE is particularly interesting in cases where water containing bacteria is being treated, or rather, waters which are more or less suspect of being infected. Take for example, the inactivation by OZONE OF THE POLIO VIRUS FROM WATER, AND THE DISINFECTION OF SEA-WATER FOR SHELL-FISH PURIFICATION. lt is also used in purifying the drinking-water in plants supplying towns and cities; purifying swimming-pools, black- or stagnant waters; making sterilized ice for different ends including the conservation of fresh fish, and use in bottling plants, hospitals, hotels, fish farms, etc..

These applications have been demonstrated by, among others, ARNOLD J. DRAPEAU, GINETTE PAQUIN, M. Sc. A. MONTREAL-QUEBEC; KUPFFER; COIN, HANNOUN, GOMELLA - PARIS; P.L. GIRARDOT - CIVIL ENGINEERS, PASTEUR INSTITUTE; Y. FAUVEL; etc.....

 

 

OZONE in medicine has many and varied applications, for example: DISINFECTING AND DEODORIZING THE AIR IN INCINERATION PLANTS, OPERATING THEATRES, PREMATURE BIRTH WARDS, ETC.

Also, OZONE is used in sterilizing systems for dialysis (hemodialysis), infected wounds, skin treatments, etc.

PROFESSOR D'AUTREC, DOCTOR Med. SIGFRIED RILLING, Dr. Rer. RENATE VIEBAHN, Dr. P. de la TORRE MISIEGO, ETC.

 

 

The oxydizing action (BACTERICIDE, VIRICIDE, GERMICIDE, FUNGICIDE AND DEODORANT) of OZONE is used to purify the air of contaminating agents and odours of all types, produced as a result of contamination in closed places containing many living organisms, for example in homes, work places, public places, hospitals, farms, etc.

To do this, ozone generators are manufactures, to be used directly, or through the air conditioning system.

This application, as many others, uses ozone generators because of their efficiency as GERMICIDES.

HAINES, BISBINI, WETHERRIDGE and YAGLOV, RENAUD LAPORT, PASTEUR, FRANKING M.W., etc.

 

OZONE is frequently used in the preservation of food-stuffs, both in refrigeration chambers and storerooms, and as they are: meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, cheeses, cold cooked meats, ete. Its main mission is to reduce the bacteriological index in the above storage sites, and consequently, to attain food-stuffs which last longer in refridgerated, frozen or fresb-stored states by eliminating bacteria and not allowing their formation in meats, etcetera; the growth of mould, etc.

lt is also used in the holds of ships to guarantee the preservation of fish while still at sea, and inside refridgeration chambers in the type of lorry used to transport this kind of merchandize and food-stuff and relying on the use of sterilized ice, due to its important potential for increasing its preservation by various days.

OZONE is also used in the storage of potatoes, eggs, cheeses, apples, bananas, fresh meats, eyc., and in each case different concentrations of OZONE are employed. In this way greater longevity of preservation and guarantees of hygiene in the storage systems may be attained, without the food going bad.

 

HIGHER BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - COLDNESS INSTITUTE MADRID, SALMON and LEGALL - 1936, NELSON - 1982, GANE - 1953, HARAGUCHI - 1969, RIDLEY and SIMS - 1966, KUPRIANOFF - 1953, ete.

lt is used in the rearing of all types of penned animal and bird, because of its efficient BACTERICIDE, VIRICIDE and DEODORANT actions both in the air and in water. lt is therefore possible to control and drastically reduce the bacteriological percentage in the air and the anatomical emissions from the animais themselves. This produces a good oxygenization of farms, and obtains such surprizing results as the decrease in the death-rate.

 

AVICULTURAL MAGAZINE - 1974, UTECO AGRABIA COOPERATIVE SOCIETY, SAVAZZINI, DEROBERT, RENAUD LAPORT, etc.

 

 

Messrs. LOBBY and OUDIN (eminent French doctors) affirm that they got results after treatments with inhalation of ozonized air, with considerable increases in the oxyhaemoglobin levels in the blood.

 

Doctor STWARD lead an experimenta the schools if Saint, Louis, in which one school had ozonized air while the other had air recycled from outside. The results were:

Ozonized Air Ordinary Air

N' cases mumps 13 57

N' cases sore throats 24 60

N' of commoncolds 46 60

N' of headaches 6 66

N' of stomachaches 0 25

N' of caraches 1 15

N' of cases of indigestion 0 9

N' cases of temperaturas 1 42

N' of cases of 'flu 0 6

N' of cases of pneumonia 0 4

 

"PASTEUR": We breathe in most of our illnesses via the air. Once in contact with OZONE, microbes are burnt and toxins destroyed.

"BISBINI": OZONE aets as a deodorant, also in small concentrations, and its action is especially noteworthy in the neutralization of odours coming from organic substances (speech given to the Belgian Committee on Tuberculosis).

"WITHERIDGE and YAGLOV": They placed 95 adult people in a smali room. The resulting odour was neutralizad using only 0.015 p.p.m. of 031 and attaining a 50% renovation of the air.

"DEROBERT": OZONE is used as an efficient deodorant in hospitals, tanning factories, cheese industry, etc.

"PASTEUR INSTITUTE": OZONE can turn epidemic-giving water into a totally pure

drinking-water.

"PROFESSOR DIUTREC": While many microbes live freely in oxygen, they are all

easily destroyed by the use of OZONE.

Ozonetherapy has unlimited possibilities but is being tested in silence ... merely because °t cures without having recourse to medicaments.

 

"Dr. de la TORRE MISIEGO": Thanks to its great oxydizing power, and based on the action mechanisms of OZONE, ozonized baths provide the following important biological actions:

 

Bactericide and viricide effect

Improvement in respiratory functions

Better blood oxygenation

Improvement in circulatory activity

Favourable to tissue trophism

Anti-inflammatory action, intemal and extemal

 

"COIN, HANNOUN, GOMELLA" - HYGIENE and MICROBIOLOGY:

 

Inactivation of the polio virus in water using OZONE.

 

"Y. FAUVEL": OZONE used as a sterilizing agent with sea water for purifying shellfish.

"ARNOLD J. DRAPEAU and GINETTE PAQUIN, M. Sc. A." Destruction of bac-

teria and viruses by means of OZONE.

"DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE of the U.S.A." Eggs stored for eight months in an ozonized atmosphere, with 90% relative humidity and a temperatura of 3 1 'F, are indistinguishable from fresh eggs, both raw and cooked.

It would be possible for us to continue quoting innumerable references, but we consider the above to be sufficient.

,Wjoa,y 5 .y,gto,m,e has a wide range of ozone generators specially designed for direct application using independent modules (for hanging on the wall), which may be fitted to the air conditioning system by means of piping propulsion (turbo series), injection, fitting to extractar hoods, etc. We have manual generators and totally automatic generators, programable according to the requirements of cach installation.

0products are legally authorized by the Ministry for Health and Consumer Affairs.

 

COMPOSITION OF

PLEAN, DRY AIR COMPONENTS CONCENTRATION WEIGHT

PRINCIPAL BY VOLUME (x 1 06)Tm

 

NITROGEN 78,09 4220000000

OXYGEN 20,95 1290000000

ARGON 0,93 72000000

CARBON DIOXIDE 0,032 2700000

 

MINOR COMPONENTS

NEON 0,0018 70000

HELIUM 0,00052 4000

METHANE 0,00015 4600

CRYPTON 0,0001 16200

HYDROGEN 0,00005 190

NITROUS OXIDE 0,00002 1700

CARBON MONOXIDE 0,00001 540

XENON 0,000008 2000

OZONE 0,000002 190

AMONIA 0,0000006 21

NITROGEN DIOXIDE 0,0000001 9

NITRIC OXIDE 0,00000006 3

SULPHUR DIOXIDE 0,00000002 2

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE 0,00000002 1

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